The roles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and innate immune responses in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis are under active investigation. TLR signalling can both promote and eliminate developing tumours and sculpt tumour immunogenicity. It is becoming increasingly apparent that inflammation plays an important role in the progression of cancer from the results of TLR-related animal studies. According to our data, transcription factors PLZF and ATF3 negatively regulate cytokine production. We are examining how these transcription factors contribute to anti-tumour responses through negative regulation of TLR signalling in inflammation-induced cancer and during primary tumourigenesis. We use mouse models of bladder and colon cancer, and aim to confirm our results in human cancers.